Table of Contents

2018 Month : January Volume : 7 Issue : 4 Page : 424-428


Siddharth Panditray1, Kamalini Bepari2, Sunil Kumar Sahu3, Shrabani Palai4, Deepakraj V5

1Postgraduate Resident, Department of ENT and Head Neck Surgery, VIMSAR, Burla.
2Assistant Professor, Department of ENT and Head Neck Surgery, VIMSAR, Burla.
3Postgraduate Resident, Department of Microbiology, VIMSAR, Burla.
4Postgraduate Resident, Department of SPM, MKCG, MCH, Berhampur.
5Postgraduate Resident, Department of ENT and Head Neck Surgery, VIMSAR, Burla.

References :


Shao LC, Sheng CQ, Zhang WN. Recent advances in the study of antifungal lead compounds with new chemical scaffolds. Yao Xue Xue Bao 2007;42(11):1129-36.        

Google Scholar | PubMed

Eggimann P, Garbino J, Pittet D. Epidemiology of Candida species infections in critically ill non-immunosuppressed patients. Lancet Infect Dis 2003;3(11):685-702.

CrossRef | Google Scholar | PubMed

Epstein JB, Pearsall NN, Truelove EL. Quantitative relationships between Candida albicans in saliva and the clinical status of human subjects. J Clin Microbiol 1980;12(3):475-6.           

CrossRef | Google Scholar | PubMed

Silva S, Negri M, Henriques M, et al. Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis and Candida tropicalis: biology, epidemiology, pathogenicity and antifungal resistance. FEMS Microbiol Rev 2012;36(2):288-305.                                

CrossRef | Google Scholar | PubMed

Samaranayake LP. Host factors and oral candidosis. In: Samaranayake LP, McFarlane TW. eds. Oral candidosis. London: Wright 1990.


Arendorf TM, Walker DM. The prevalence and intra-oral distribution of Candida albicans in man. Arch Oral Biol 1980;25(1):1-10.           

Google Scholar | PubMed

Reichart PA, Samaranayake LP, Philipsen HP. Pathology and clinical correlates in oral candidiasis and its variants: a review. Oral Dis 2000;6(2):85-91.        

CrossRef | Google Scholar | PubMed

Pfaller MA, Diekema DJ, Procop GW, et al. Multicenter comparison of the VITEK 2 antifungal susceptibility test with the CLSI broth microdilution reference method for testing amphotericin B, flucytosine and voriconazole against Candida spp. J Clin Microbiol 2007;45(11):3522-8.                      

CrossRef | Google Scholar | PubMed

Cannon RD, Holmes AR, Mason AB, et al. Oral Candida: clearance, colonization, or candidiasis? J Dent Res 1995;74(5):1152-61.       

CrossRef | Google Scholar | PubMed

Sitheeque MA, Samaranayake LP. Chronic hyperplastic candidosis/candidiasis (candidal leukoplakia) Crit Rev Oral Biol Med 2003;14(4):253-67.

Google Scholar | PubMed

Hsia CC, Sun TT, Wang YY, et al. Enhancement of formation of the esophageal carcinogen benzylmethylnitrosamine from its precursors by Candida albicans. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1981;78(3):1878-81.            

CrossRef | Google Scholar | PubMed

Samaranayake LP, MacFarlane TW. Host factors and oral candidosis. Oral candidosis. London: Wright 1990:66-103.


Sudarshan R, Annigeri RG, Vijayabala SG. Pathogenesis of oral submucous fibrosis: the past and current concepts. Int J Oral Maxillofac Pathol 2012;3(2):27-36.         

CrossRef | Google Scholar |

Wiener RC, Wu B, Crout R, et al. Hyposalivation and xerostomia in dentate older adults. J Am Dent Assoc 2010;141(3):279-84.             

CrossRef | Google Scholar | PubMed

Torres SR, Peixoto CB, Caldas DM, et al. Relationship between salivary flow rates and Candida counts in subjects with xerostomia. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2002;93(2):149-54.              

CrossRef | Google Scholar | PubMed

Navazesh M, Wood GJ, Brightman VJ. Relationship between salivary flow rates and Candida albicans counts. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 1995;80(3):284-8.  

CrossRef | Google Scholar | PubMed

More CB, Das S, Patel H, el al. Proposed clinical classification for oral submucous fibrosis. Oral Oncology 2012;48(3):200-2.         

CrossRef | Google Scholar | PubMed

Navazesh M, Kumar SK, University of Southern California School of Dentistry. Measuring salivary flow: challenges and opportunities. The Journal of the American Dental Association 2008;(Suppl 139):S35-S40.                 

Google Scholar | PubMed

Luo S, Skerka C, Kurzai O, et al. Complement and innate immune evasion strategies of the human pathogenic fungus Candida albicans. Mol Immunol 2013;56(3):161-9.                           

CrossRef | Google Scholar | PubMed

Yan L, Yang C, Tang J. Disruption of the intestinal mucosal barrier in Candida albicans infections. Microbiol Res 2013;168(7):389-95.           

CrossRef | Google Scholar | PubMed

Mayer FL, Wilson D, Hube B. Candida albicans pathogenicity mechanisms. Virulence 2013;4(2):119-28.            

CrossRef | Google Scholar | PubMed

Mech F, Wilson D, Lehnert T, et al. Epithelial invasion outcompetes hypha development during Candida albicans infection as revealed by an image-based systems biology approach. Cytometry A 2014;85(2):126-39.                    

CrossRef | Google Scholar | PubMed

Samaranayake LP, MacFarlane TW, Lamey PJ, et al. A comparison of oral rinse and imprint sampling techniques for the detection of yeast, coliform and Staphylococcus aureus carriage in the oral cavity. J Oral Pathol 1986;15(7):386-8.                   

Google Scholar | PubMed

Pereira-Cenci T, Del Bel Cury AA, Crielaard W, et al. Development of Candida-associated denture stomatitis: new insights. J Appl Oral Sci 2008;16(2):86-94.          

CrossRef | Google Scholar | PubMed

Scully C. Oral and maxillofacial medicine. Edinburgh: Wright 2004:252-7.


Brassart D, Woltz A, Golliard M, et al. In vitro inhibition of adhesion of Candida albicans clinical isolates to human buccal epithelial cells by Fuc alpha 1----2Gal beta-bearing complex carbohydrates. Infect Immun 1991;59(5):1605-13.         

CrossRef | Google Scholar | PubMed

Ghannoum MA, Burns GR, Elteen KA, et al. Experimental evidence for the role of lipids in adherence of Candida spp. to human buccal epithelial cells. Infect Immun 1986;54(1):189-93.             

CrossRef | Google Scholar | PubMed

Douglas LJ. Surface composition and adhesion of Candida albicans. Biochem Soc Trans 1985;13(6):982-4.                                    

CrossRef | PubMed

Dalle F, Wächtler B, L’Ollivier C, et al. Cellular interactions of Candida albicans with human oral epithelial cells and enterocytes. Cell Microbiol 2010;12(2):248-71.  

CrossRef | Google Scholar | PubMed

Henriques M, Azeredo J, Oliveira R. Candida species adhesion to oral epithelium: Factors involved and experimental methodology used. Crit Rev Microbiol 2006;32(4):217-26.                         

CrossRef | Google Scholar | PubMed

Lima-Neto RG, Beltrão EI, Oliveira PC, et al. Adherence of Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis to epithelial cells correlates with fungal cell surface carbohydrates. Mycoses 2011;54(1):23-9.            

CrossRef | Google Scholar | PubMed

McCulough M, Jaber M, Barrett AW, et al. Oral yeast carriage correlates with presence of oral epithelial dysplasia. Oral Oncol 2002;38(4):391-3.   

CrossRef | Google Scholar | PubMed

Krogh P, Holmstrup P, Thorn JJ, et al. Yeast species and biotypes associated with oral leukoplakia and lichen planus. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1987;63(1):48-54.                          

Google Scholar | PubMed

Kumar RS, Ganvir S, Hazarey V. Candida and calcofluor white: study in precancer and cancer. JOMP 2009;13(1):2-8.             

CrossRef | Google Scholar | PubMed

Reichart PA, Schmidtberg W, Samaranayake LP, et al. Betel quid associated oral lesions and oral Candida species in a female Cambodian cohort. J Oral Pathol Med 2002;31(8):468-72.                          

CrossRef | Google Scholar | PubMed

Reichart PA, Khongkhunthian P, Samaranayake LP, et al. Oral Candida species and betel quid-associated oral lesions in Padaung women of northern Thailand. Mycoses 2005;48(2):132-6.              

CrossRef | Google Scholar | PubMed

Ariyawardana A, Panagoda GJ, Fernando HN, et al. Oral submucous fibrosis and oral yeast carriage – a case control study in Sri Lankan patients. Mycoses 2007;50(2):116-20.                             

CrossRef | Google Scholar | PubMed

Anila K, Hallikeri K, Shubhada C, et al. Comparative study of Candida in oral submucous fibrosis and healthy individuals. Rev Odonto Cienc 2011;26(1):71-6.   

CrossRef | Google Scholar |

Gupta B, Chandra S, Raj V, et al. Comparison of salivary flow and candidal carriage in patients with oral submucous fibrosis. J Oral Maxillofac Pathol 2015;19(2):158-63.    

CrossRef | Google Scholar | PubMed

Nadig SD, Ashwathappa DT, Manjunath M, et al. A relationship between salivary flow rates and Candida counts in patients with xerostomia. J Oral Maxillofac Pathol 2017;21(2):316.                   

CrossRef | Google Scholar | PubMed

Shinozaki S, Moriyama M, Hayashida JN, et al. Close association between oral Candida species and oral mucosal disorders in patients with xerostomia. Oral Dis 2012;18(7):667-72.                           

CrossRef | Google Scholar | PubMed