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2014 Month : November Volume : 3 Issue : 60 Page : 13490-13500


Sunny Goyal1, Tushar Prabha2, Mohan Shivnani3, Ankur Aggarwal4, Hemant Kumar Mishra5

Dr. Sunny Goyal,
Room No. 103, PG Hostel,
MGMCH, Sitapura,

INTRODUCTION: Primary bladder neoplasms account for 2%–6% of all tumors, with bladder cancer ranked as the fourth most common malignancy(1). Peak incidence is in the sixth and the seventh decades. Incidence is four times higher in men than in women. The urinary bladder is the organ that collects urine excreted by the kidneys before disposal by urination. A hollow muscular, and distensible (or elastic) organ, the bladder sits on the pelvic floor. Urine enters the bladder via the ureters and exits via the urethra (2). The bladder is readily identified by ultrasound, Computed Tomography, cystography, Magnetic Resonance Image (MRI) and Cystoscopy, but Bladder ultrasound is noninvasive, readily accessible, and easy to use. It has been extensively investigated as a possible substitution for some of the more common invasive modalities used to evaluate the bladder (3).Bladder cancer is the most common tumor of urinary tract. Sonographically, the distended urinary bladder should have smooth, thin, medium level echogenic walls (approximately 3 mm thick) and contain no echoes, with the exception of the normal jets of urine as the ureters empty into the bladder. In the partially filled state, the bladder is collapsed. The urinary bladder cavity is not seen if it is collapsed; otherwise it appears anechoic. The bladder wall appears as a smooth, thin echogenic line. The sonographic appearances of a partially filled bladder are thickened (up to 6 mm thick), irregular walls encircling an echo lucent interior. Therefore, to assess wall thickness, the bladder should be reasonably distended. The ureteral orifices are seen as elevations on the posterior portion of the bladder on longitudinal scans to each side of midline in transverse scans (4).


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